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Standards for Financial Management Systems


Federal funds must be used to supplement existing State and local funds for program activities and must not supplant (replace) those funds that have been appropriated for the same purpose.

  • Supplanting will be reviewed during post-award monitoring and audit.
  • If reviewers think that supplanting may have occurred, then the recipient will be required to supply documentation demonstrating that the reduction in non-Federal resources occurred for reasons other than the receipt or expected receipt of Federal funds.
  • For certain programs, a written certification may be requested by the awarding agency or recipient agency stating that Federal funds will not be used to supplant State or local funds.


To help clarify the difference between supplementing and supplanting, we provide the following example:

State funds are appropriated to hire 50 new police officers, and Federal funds are awarded for hiring 60 new police officers. At the end of the year, the State has hired 60 new police officers, and the Federal funds have been exhausted. The State has not used its funds towards hiring new officers, but instead reduced its appropriation for that purpose and assigned or appropriated the funds to another purpose. In this case, the State has supplanted its appropriation with the Federal funds. If supplanting had not occurred, 110 new officers would have been hired using Federal funds for 60 officers and State funds for 50 officers.

COPS TipCOPS Office Specific Tip

For COPS hiring grant programs it is also important to track reductions-in-force and vacancies of locally budgeted positions during the grant award implementation.

Reduction-in-Force – Contact the COPS Office for guidance.

Vacancies – Maintain job announcements and other documentation that demonstrates the recipient took active and timely steps to backfill locally funded positions. As a general rule, when both locally budgeted vacancies and COPS funded positions are vacant, hire officers on a 1:1 ratio. Example: hire one COPS funded position for each local position hired to avoid potential supplanting issues and to help ensure timely implementation of the COPS hiring grant. For any questions on complying with the nonsupplanting requirement, please contact the COPS Office Response Center at 800-421-6770.