This study of physicochemical responsive integrated similarity measure (PRISM) found that PRISM collects large amounts of similarity information and effectively integrates it to produce a quantitative similarity evaluation between the target sample and a source domain.
Results of a study on physicochemical responsive integrated similarity measure (PRISM) indicate that PRISM collects large amounts of similarity information and effectively integrates it to produce a quantitative similarity evaluation between the target sample and a source domain. The approach is also useful for biological samples with additional physiochemical variations. While PRISM is dynamically tested on NIR data, parts of PRISM were previously applied to other data types, and PRISM should be applicable to other measurement systems perturbed by matrix effects. Determining sample similarity underlies many foundational principles in analytical chemistry. For example, calibration models are unsuitable to predict outliers. Calibration transfer methods assume a moderate degree of sample and measurement dissimilarities between a calibration set and target prediction samples. Classification approaches link target sample similarities to groups of similar class samples. Although similarity is ubiquitous in analytical chemistry and everyday life, quantifying sample similarity is without a straightforward solution, especially when target domain samples are unlabeled and the only known features are measurable, such as spectra (the focus of this paper). The process proposed to assess sample similarity integrates spectral similarity information with contextual considerations among source analyte contents, model, and analyte predictions. This hybrid approach, PRISM, amplifies hidden-but-essential physicochemical properties encoded within respective spectra. PRISM is tested on four near-infrared (NIR) data sets for four diverse application areas to show efficacy. These applications are the assessment of prediction reliability and model updating for model generalizability, outlier detection, and basic matrix matching evaluation. Discussion is provided on adapting PRISM to classification problems. (Published Abstract Provided)