Skeletal sex estimation is one of the most important aspects of the biological profile as it narrows the population essentially by half and aids in decedent identification. This presentation will briefly discuss the current state of skeletal sex estimation in forensic anthropology. Topics to be covered in this overview section include appropriate terminology, practitioner preferences, morphological and metric methods, statistical approaches, current standards/best practice guidelines, challenges and contentious issues, and future directions and research needs. The primary focus of this presentation will then be on the MorphoPASSE: Morphological Pelvis and Skull Sex Estimation database and program for skeletal sex estimation. The presentation will detail the revised trait descriptions and scoring procedures, with examples, and will demonstrate how to use the MorphoPASSE graphical user interface (GUI) and interpret the output. By the end of this presentation, practitioners will be comfortable applying the MorphoPASSE method to skeletal sex estimation in forensic contexts.
MorphoPASSE is a free GUI designed to combine the five skull traits of Walker (2008) – glabella, nuchal crest, supraorbital margin, mastoid process, mental eminence – with the three pelvic traits of the Klales et al. (2012) method – ventral arc, subpubic contour, medial aspect of the ischiopubic ramus – into a single estimate of sex using a machine learning method known as random forest modeling. Prior to creation of the MorphoPASSE GUI, the validity of the original Walker and Klales et al. methods were tested. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability in trait scoring was assessed, trait descriptions/images were revised, secular change and population variation were evaluated, and the impact of asymmetry was analyzed through grant funding. The resulting program and combined method, the MorphoPASSE GUI, contains a sample of over 2,500 individuals with known demographic data from 15 worldwide collections.
Traits are to be scored using the MorphoPASSE manual which includes the revised trait descriptions, illustrations, and real-bone figures. These scores are then put into the MorphoPASSE GUI. A detailed overview of each trait, along with individual ordinal trait scores and associated descriptions and images, will be covered. Challenging specimens, unique cases, and real case specimens will also be included as examples. Once the available traits are scored and entered into the MorphoPASSE GUI, practitioners can select the appropriate comparative sample for their unknown case based on temporal period, ancestry/population group, and/or worldwide region. This presentation will detail the recommended parameters for active forensic casework and present several case examples.
Finally, practitioners are presented with the results output, which includes case predictive probability for sex membership, sample size and parameters, test accuracy, training model accuracy, and model variable importance. Using case examples, the output will be described in detail and a sample results section write-up for a forensic anthropology case report will be presented.
Detailed Learning Objectives
- Attendees will understand the current state of skeletal sex estimation in forensic anthropology.
- Attendees will learn how to collect, analyze, and interpret data for use in MorphoPASSE.
- Attendees will be able to apply the MorphoPASSE program to cases for skeletal sex estimation.
Certificate of Completion