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Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994

NCJ Number
Date Published
July 1996
187 pages
J M Brown; D K Gilliard; T L Snell; J J Stephan; D J Wilson
Publication Type
An estimated 5.1 million adults were under some form of correctional supervision in 1994, and nearly 75 percent of these people were on probation or parole.
About 2.7 percent of the U.S. adult resident population were under correctional care or supervision in 1994, up 1.1 percent from 1980. Local jails held an estimated 484,000 adults, or about 1 in every 398 adult U.S. residents, on June 30, 1994. Men comprised 90 percent of adult jail inmates. White, non-Hispanic inmates accounted for 39 percent of the total jail population, while black non-Hispanics accounted for 44 percent and Hispanics accounted for 15 percent. The total number of adults in jail increased by an estimated 28,200 inmates during the year ending June 30, 1994. The overall increase of 300,800 adult inmates between 1980 and 1994 represented an average annual increase of 7.2 percent. Nearly 3 million adults were on probation in December 1994. Probationers made up 58 percent of all adults under correctional supervision in 1994. About 20 percent of probationers were women, 66 percent were white, and 32 percent were black. The probation population grew by more than 1.8 million between 1980 and 1994, an average of 7.2 percent annually. An estimated 992,000 men and women were in State and Federal prisons at the end of 1994. About 94 percent of prisoners were male, 47 percent were white, and 51 percent were black. The number of prisoners increased by 8.4 percent yearly between 1980 and 1994. An estimated 690,000 adults were on parole at the end of 1994, and 9 of every 10 parolees were men. About 53 percent of parolees were white and 46 percent were black. An estimated 57 percent of those sentenced to death were white and 41 percent were black. Thirteen States executed 31 male prisoners during 1994. The military services held a total of 2,782 prisoners in 33 facilities as of December 31, 1994. About 98 percent of military detainees were male, 50 percent were non-Hispanic whites, 39 percent were non-Hispanic blacks, and 7 percent were Hispanics. Tables and figures
Date Created: July 5, 2018