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PepperBall® SA-4 Launcher™ Accuracy Study

NCJ Number
Date Published
March 2023
21 pages

This paper reports on a study that examined the overall functioning of the PepperBall® SA-4 Launcher™, a less-lethal weapon that is designed for crowd control and suspect compliance, with the ability to fire four shots of ammunition.


The authors of this report describe the methodology and outcomes of testing of the overall functioning and reliability of the PepperBall® SA-4 Launcher™, which fires special ImpactPlus® projectiles at a manufacturer-stated range of 25 to 30 feet, with approximately 20 foot pounds per projectile and a muzzle velocity of 320 feet per second (fps). The authors found that the average muzzle velocity was very close to manufacturer estimations at 327.74 fps. The study produced a linear regression model with the goal of providing an operator the ability to compensate for ballistic drop to attain the desired point of impact. The authors did determine, however, that the projectile tended to rise (float) rather than drop in a consistent manner.

Date Published: March 14, 2023