Since exposure to hate material is related to a host of negative outcomes and young people might be especially vulnerable to the deleterious effects of such exposure, this study examined factors associated with the frequency that youth and young adults, ages 15 to 24, see material online that expresses negative views toward a social group.
The study used an online survey of individuals recruited from a demographically balanced sample of Americans for this project. The analysis controlled for variables that approximate online routines, social, political, and economic grievances, and sociodemographic traits. Findings show that spending more time online, using particular social media sites, interacting with close friends online, and espousing political views online all correlate with increased exposure to online hate. Harboring political grievances was likewise associated with seeing hate material online frequently. Finally, Whites were more likely than other race/ethnic groups to be exposed to online hate frequently. (publisher abstract modified)