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Toner Particles as Forensic Evidence: Microanalytical Characterization of Known Toner and Recognition of Toner in Environmental Samples

NCJ Number
Journal of Forensic Sciences Volume: Online Dated: July 2020
Date Published
July 2020
14 pages
Since modern printing toners represent a prime example of subvisible particles that can be easily transferred to hands, clothing, and other surfaces, the current study explored the potential evidentiary value of toner particles.

Toner samples were collected from known printer cartridges and characterized by various microanalytical techniques to establish the properties most useful for recognition, identification, and comparison. Environmental samples (i.e., dust) were then collected from various locations at varying distances from toner-based printers, using both tape lifts and carbon adhesive stubs to assess the possibility of detecting toner. By light microscopy, toner can be recognized on the basis of particle size and shape, as well as color. Further examination of the micromorphology in the field emission scanning electron microscope reveals characteristic morphologies and differences in surface texture and shape among toner sources. Raman spectroscopy provides chemical identification of the pigment (or pigment class) and, in some cases, also permits identification of the polymer component. Although black and blue pigment chemistry remained constant among toner varieties that were studied (copper phthalocyanine and carbon black), variation in yellow and magenta pigments was observed. Analysis of dust samples collected from various environments demonstrated that while toner is consistently detectable in close proximity to printers (within 2 feet), it also can be detected in dust collected in nearby rooms. This research demonstrates that toner particles can be located, characterized, and discriminated, using a suite of microanalytical methods that are applicable to forensic casework. (publisher abstract modified)

Date Published: July 1, 2020