In 1954, capital punishment for murder was abolished in Israel on the basis of consideration of humanitarian, liberal, and progressive views of penology. However, the death penalty is exceptionally provided for by some laws but is mandatory only in cases of murder under the Nazi and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law and the Crimes of Genocide (Prevention and Punishment) Law. The courts may impose another penalty in these cases under certain circumstances. In practice, capital punishment has been carried out only once since the advent of the State of Israel in 1948. Offenses punishable by death are tried in the District Court which consists of three judges and is presided by a judge of the Supreme Court. The law provides for the Supreme Court to conduct an automatic mandatory review when a death sentence is imposed. Israel's president retains the power to grant a pardon, remit, or commute all sentences including the death penalty.