The three types of coupons are the media coupons printed in newspapers and magazines, package coupons printed or enclosed with packages, and direct mail coupons. Coupon fraud occurs when coupons submitted for redemption were not accepted during a retailer's normal course of business. Ways of perpetrating coupon fraud are for coupon entrepreneurs to sell coupons directly to store owners or managers, for individuals to submit coupons using fake store names, or for store owners and managers to add additional coupons to their legitimate coupons. Store cashiers and commercial clearinghouses may also commit fraud. Efforts and records are needed at each stage of the redemption cycle to detect and deal with fraud. Lists of signs of fraud, recommended procedures for each component of the redemption process, and procedures for confronting customers.