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Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Volume 34

NCJ Number
Michael Tonry
Date Published
537 pages
Based on literature reviews of relevant research over time, the essays in this volume trace developments in the histories of the following criminal justice issues: sentencing, randomized experiments related to criminal justice, human trafficking for sexual exploitation, victimization surveys in cross-national research, money laundering, Federal action against violent crime, and the effects of solitary confinement on inmates.
The review of research on the purposes and functions of sentencing in America notes the fragmentation of sentencing since the modern sentencing reform movement began in the 1970s in an effort to replace retributive theories of punishment; however, it envisions the emergence of new sentencing systems that are more just than current fragmented systems, provided new normative sentencing theories develop simultaneously. Another essay reviews the number and findings of randomized experiments on the effectiveness of the criminal justice system between 1957 and 2004. The essay on human trafficking for sexual exploitation focuses on research pertinent to its prevalence and characteristics. The research review on money laundering focuses on the characteristics of money-laundering methods and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The review of research pertinent to the past, present, and future of Federal efforts to counter violent crime in the United States concludes that the Federal commitment to preventing violent terrorist acts envisions a different dynamic for the role of State and local governments in this effort. There will likely be reduced Federal funding for policing and a tension between domestic intelligence collection and street-crime enforcement, particularly in urban areas with a high proportion of immigrants. The concluding research review on the effects of solitary confinement notes that it depends on the duration, circumstances, and individual characteristics of the inmate. For many inmates, however, the adverse effects of their solitary confinement are substantial. Data tables and extensive references for each essay


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