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Exploratory Study of the Variation in Japan's Embezzlement Rates Via Institutional Anomie Theory

NCJ Number
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice Volume: 34 Issue: 2 Dated: Fall 2010 Pages: 281-299
Maira F. Aranha; George W. Burruss
Date Published
19 pages
This article examines the variations in Japan's embezzlement rates using institutional anomie theory.
Institutional anomie theory (IAT) explains variations in crime at the societal level by the combination of cultural features and the balance of power between economic and noneconomic institutions. IAT has had empirical support at the national level, as well as within country variation, to explain both street and white-collar crimes. This study sought to explore embezzlement trends within the IAT framework via the economic, family, political, and educational institutions in Japan (1985-2005), a country that emulates some elements of American capitalism yet which has strong collective cultural norms that are known for exerting strong informal social control. By converting the original count data into z-scores, the trends were standardized on the same scale, so variations in economic and structural conditions over time on Japanese embezzlement were easier to observe. The implications for IAT are discussed. Figures, tables, and references (Published Abstract)