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Fog of War (From Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Comprehensive Survey For the Concerned Citizen, P 3-18, 2002, Eric Croddy, Clarisa Perez-Armendariz, et al, -- See NCJ-192083)

NCJ Number
Eric Croddy; Clarisa Perez-Armendariz; John Hart
Date Published
16 pages
This chapter is a brief introduction to and definition of chemical and biological warfare.
Chemical and biological warfare (CBW) is waged with chemical and biological agents that have been placed in weapons. Chemical agents are made up of precursors, i.e., their ingredients. Biological agents are pathogens, disease-causing organisms or substances. CBW weapons are chosen primarily because of their extreme toxicity or infectivity. In addition, they come at a relatively low cost, considering the size of their "footprint." Many chemicals used in civilian industry can also be used to make CW agents. The following compounds (with their commercial uses and CW use) are examples of such "dual-use" materials: (1) thiodiglycol/plastics, textile dyes, ink/mustard; (2) phosphorus trichloride/plasticizers, insecticides/G-series nerve agents; (3) sodium cyanide/dyes, pigments, metal hardening/GA, AC, CK; (4) methylphosphonic difluoride/organic chemical synthesis/VX, GB, GD; and (5) phosphorus pentasulfide/lubricants, pesticides (e.g., Amiton)/VX. The dual-use problem and advanced techniques for sterilizing contaminated equipment means that, even though BW proliferation is prohibited by international law, investigators may have a very hard time proving definitively that a particular facility was used to test or develop these armaments. Tables, notes