Low self-control has emerged as a strong predictor of criminal conduct and analogous behaviors. Questions remain, however, as to the origins of self-control. Whereas some argue it is a trait instilled solely through a process of parental socialization, more recent research has suggested the possibility that self-control is interconnected with many executive functions deriving from the prefrontal cortex of the brain. Using data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 2,104), this study assesses the degree to which self-control is linked with intellectual achievement in childhood and adolescence. Results from Poisson regression analyses indicate that intellectual achievement is significantly related to variations in self-control, controlling for a variety of parenting measures; age, race, and gender; and previous levels of self-control. A discussion of the relationship between intellectual achievement and self-control is provided. Abstract published by arrangement with Sage Journals.