The analysis of the evolution of modern policing draws upon historical materials pertaining to policing in France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, India, Japan, China, Canada, and the United States. This historical study traces the emergence of public, specialized, and professional police organizations and describes the varied structures of modern police force. An examination of the evolutionary patterns of police forces focuses on personnel. Modern police functions are analyzed in terms of the nature of police work, its conceptualization, and the sources of information about policing. Major patterns of variation in police work among national police forces are charted, and a theory is developed to explain variations in police work across countries. A consideration of the reciporocal relations between police systems within which they function looks at how countries have attempted to make police accountable and the police role in politics. Sepculations on the future of policing conclude the book. The appendix describes the research sites used in the study. Approximately 320 bibliographic listings are provided along with a subject index.