Security Journal Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Dated: 2003 Pages: 7-18
Bonnie S. Fisher, Martin Gill
This article presents the history of automated teller machines (ATMs) in the United States and case studies of the effectiveness of legislation establishing security standards for ATM facilities in New York City and Los Angeles.
The life cycle of vulnerability and high risk for a product is defined as the period when a product in high demand among consumers is attractive to thieves and security measures have not yet been devised and installed to protect them. The four successive phases in the life cycle of vulnerability are described as innovation, growth, mass market, and saturation. The authors suggest that the life-cycle hypothesis might also apply to new modes of service delivery such as automated teller machines (ATMs). Tables provide information on a summary of ATM security provisions in New York City and Los Angeles; ATMs and all robberies in New York City, 1991-1999; ATM crimes and robberies in Los Angeles in 1992-2000; and yearly percentage change in ATM and bank robberies in Los Angeles, 1992-2000. In conclusion, it was found that substantial decreases in ATM robberies were found without any evidence of crime displacement, and the lessons gained from this study for government and industry use are noted. It is recommended that industry representatives need to find a middle ground in terms of security interventions that serve both their interest and that of the government in protecting citizens and maximizing profits. A list of source references is provided.