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Sexual Dimorphism of the Humerus in Contemporary Cretans-A Population-Specific Study and a Review of the Literature

NCJ Number
Journal of Forensic Sciences Volume: 54 Issue: 5 Dated: September 2009 Pages: 996-1000
Elena F. Kranioti, M.D.; Manolis Michalodimitrakis, M.D., J.D.
Date Published
September 2009
5 pages
Taking into consideration the population features of sexual dimorphism of the skeleton, this study created a sex-identification technique that uses osteometric standards derived from a contemporary Cretan population.
The most effective single dimension was vertical head diameter, as it yielded a 89.9-percent accuracy in gender identification. This dimension held a higher discriminatory value in Cretans when compared with other populations. The study also found a high discriminatory value for the humerus in sex estimation in Cretans, which confirmed several previous studies. The humerus is an effective bone for the identification of sex for forensic purposes, because even in a fragmentary state, it can yield high classification accuracy. Approximately 92.3 percent of cases were correctly classified when all measurements were applied jointly. The skeletal material for this study was selected from the cemeteries of St. Konstantinos and Patelles, Heraklion, Crete (Greece). A total of 84 male and 84 female left humeri were measured according to standard osteometric techniques. Stepwise discriminant function analysis was used to select the combination of variables that best discriminated males and females. Fragmentary patterns were assumed, and combinations of selected variables or even single variables were subjected to direct discriminant function analysis in order to develop sex-determination formulas for the humerus. 4 tables, 1 figure, and 31 references