U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government, Department of Justice.

NCJRS Virtual Library

The Virtual Library houses over 235,000 criminal justice resources, including all known OJP works.
Click here to search the NCJRS Virtual Library

Survey of US Residents and Their Usage of Electronic Cigarettes with Drugs Other Than Nicotine

NCJ Number
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Dated: 2023
Alaina K. Holt; Alyssa K. Rudy; Ashlee N. Sawyer; Justin L. Pokli; Alison B. Breland; Michelle R. Peace
Date Published

This document presents the results of an exploratory survey into the demographics, e-cigarette device type, the use of drugs other than nicotine, frequency, and context of use.


Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), originally intended to be used as cigarette substitutes, have evolved into discreet devices for consuming drugs other than nicotine (DOTNs). This paper presents the results of an exploratory survey in which information regarding demographics, e-cig device type, DOTN use, frequency and context of use was collected. The average reported age of respondents was 27.4 years of age, and respondents predominantly identified as male. Vape pens (disposable or refillable) were the most reported device across all DOTN classes. Cannabinoids were the most-reported class of DOTN used, for both lifetime and past 30-day use. Other DOTNs reported included herbal supplements, amphetamines, caffeine, kratom, vitamins, opiates, DMT, fentanyl, and ketamine. Combinations of DOTNs used in e-cigs and trends in poly-substance use were reported. The most commonly reported context was vaping alone, followed by with friends, at home, and at social events; less commonly reported contexts included when driving, at work, and at school. Results from this study are useful for developing future national surveys to consider a comprehensive substance use-focused strategy that includes vaping, building awareness of DOTN e-cig use, and highlighting public safety issues in driving impairment, crime scene investigations, and death investigations. Publisher Abstract Provided