Several studies have indicated that blacks are overrepresented among case reports of child abuse. The National Study gathered case data from a stratified random sample of 26 counties throughout the United States between April 1979 and May 1980. The 17,645 cases of child abuse and neglect reported to the study included 4,170 substantiated cases. The analysis grouped the children into three categories: black, Hispanic, and white. Black children were most likely to have experienced physical abuse or physical neglect and less likely than other children to be classified as victims of emotional injury. The black mothers were more likely to be unemployed. Nonwhite children and mothers were younger than white children and mothers. Among black children, physical and sexual abuse were positively related to the child's age, whereas physical neglect was inversely related to the child's age. Physical abuse was more likely to occur in families with two parents, in urban areas, and in households in which the mother was employed full time. Females were overrepresented among physical abuse victims, and implements like brooms and weapons were used in 59 percent of the female maltreatment cases. Recommendations for further research, data tables, 1 note, and 19 references.