This study examined the effects of traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and dual-bullying victimization on subsequent delinquent outcomes.
Overall, this study found evidence that victims of cyberbullying may be more likely to engage in delinquent and deviant behavior compared to victims of traditional bullying. Criminologists and antibullying prevention efforts should consider the broader role of cyberbullying victimization in the developmental processes of adolescents. .Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of middle school students (N = 3,271) as part of the evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) program. A hybrid random effects model was used to estimate the between- and within-individual effects of traditional, cyber-, and dual-bullying victimization, while controlling for other predictors of delinquency. Outcomes included general delinquency, violent and nonviolent delinquency, and substance use. The findings indicate that those who are cyberbullied exhibited a higher propensity for substance use and nonviolent delinquency compared to those who are traditionally bullied. Changes in dual victimization within respondents over time were most strongly related to general delinquency. With one exception, the effect of traditional bullying victimization remained weakest in all the models. (Publisher abstract modified)