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Case Study: Red Flag Practice - Ximena's Story

NCJ Number
Date Published
October 2020

In this video case-study description, a trafficker targets a young woman named Ximena, using her financial need and dedication to her family as a context for exploitation.


This case study is intended for victim service providers to learn about possible identifiers of recruitment for human trafficking. Identifying the “red flags” assists service providers in helping victims of labor trafficking identify how they are being victimized. In the case study, the “red flags” of labor trafficking include little information provided by the interviewer on the job or position; the trafficker’s manipulation of Ximena’s circumstances of financial need; information and the job contract were not provided in the language of the applicant; the recruiter verbally told the applicant what was in the contract and agreements; and the applicant was required to pay back travel and living expenses upon arrival at the new country. The job involved being an indentured servant where the job was located. Victim service providers should inform labor trafficking victims of their right to have a contract written in the applicant’s language; the right to leave or end a job at any time; the right to be paid the amount originally promised; the likelihood of having a right to the minimum wage and overtime; protection against an employer withholding wages; and the prohibition against employers making unlawful deductions from wages. A website reference is provided for more information on violations with visa workers, timekeeping, paycheck deductions, and wages.  

Date Created: March 11, 2021