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Middle-Class Offenders: A 35-Year Follow-Up

NCJ Number
British Journal of Criminology Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Dated: July 2012 Pages: 765-785
Date Published
July 2012
21 pages

This study examined long-term outcome for middle-class offenders after conviction.


The long-term outcome for middle-class offenders after conviction is an under-researched area in criminology. This present study considers 317 offenderswith a follow-up of at least 35 yearswho are seeking white-collar employment after conviction. On the basis of their previous criminal history, five clusters of offenders can be identified using latent class analysis (LCA): low-rate white-collar, low-rate general, medium-rate acquisitive specialists, medium/high-rate generalists and high-rate generalists. Of the total series, 40 percent were reconvicted of any standard-list offence, 24 percent were reconvicted of a white-collar offence and 8 percent were reconvicted of a sex or violence offence. The study helps to support the notion that middle-class persons are very much part of 'the crime problem'. (Published Abstract)

Date Published: July 1, 2012