The NSPHC collected data from 45 States in 2012 to cover the status of health care in State prisons in 2011. At that time, prison admission procedures tested at least some prisoners for the following health-related conditions: 76.9 percent tested for hepatitis A; 82 percent for hepatitis B; 87.3 percent for hepatitis C; 100 percent for tuberculosis; 100 percent for mental health conditions and suicide risk; 40.3 percent for traumatic brain injury; 82.5 percent for cardiovascular conditions and risk factors; 70 percent for elevated lipids; and 99.8 percent for high blood pressure. Most of the 45 States delivered several services on-site, including inpatient and outpatient mental health care (27 and 44 States, respectively); care for chronic diseases (31 States); long-term or nursing home care (35 States); and hospice care (35 States). For inpatient and outpatient medical, dental, and emergency care, most States delivered services using a combination of on-site and off-site care locations. Most States delivered selected diagnostic procedures and radiologic tests off-site. Telemedicine was most commonly used for psychiatric services (28 States). Information collected by the NSPHC is a first step toward addressing existing gaps in research on the structure and provision of health care in the US. prison system.