The 2003 Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) requires the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) to conduct, on a yearly basis, a comprehensive statistical review and analysis of the incidence and effects of prison rape. This report presents highlights from the various surveys conducted by BJS as required by the PREA. Highlights from the National Former Prison Survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 found that 9.6 percent of former State prisoners reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization during the most recent period of incarceration in a jail, prison, and post-release community-treatment facility; the rate of sexual victimization in State prison increased from 4.8 percent in 2008-2009 to 7.5 percent in 2011-2012; among former State prisoners, the rate of inmate-on-inmate sexual victimization was at least three times higher for females (13.7 percent) than males (4.2 percent); and rates of sexual victimization were higher among bisexual (34 percent) and homosexual or gay inmates (39 percent) compared to heterosexual males (3.5 percent). The National Inmate Survey (NIS) was conducted between October 2008 and October 2009 and found that rates of sexual victimization were unchanged from 2007, with 4.4 percent of prison inmates and 3.1 percent of jail inmates reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization by another inmate or facility staff in the 12 months since admission. Findings collected for the NIS from May 2011 through May 2012 will be published at a later date. Three other surveys were conducted by BJS as a requirement of the PREA, the National Survey of Youth in Custody (NSYC), the Survey of Sexual Violence (SSV), and the Clinical Indicators of Sexual Violence in Custody (CISVC) survey. Findings from these data collection efforts will be published at a later date.