The three major categories that describe prisons and jails constructed during the past decade are described: linear/intermittent surveillance, podular/remote surveillance, and podular/direct surveillance. Introduced by the Federal Prison System in 1974, the latter is the most popular model. Institutions following this model have been cost-effective and have had fewer assaults than in traditional jails. Principles underlying the podular/direct supervision model are outlined: effective control, effective supervision, need for competent staff, safety of staff and inmates, manageable and cost-effective operations, effective communication, classification and orientation, and justice and fairness. A survey of barriers to implementation covers local and State officials' negative attitudes and the model's departure from the traditional image of a place of punishment. Implications of the podular/direct surveillance concept for correctional planning are explored. Diagrams, tables, a list of direct supervision facilities, and a cost analysis.