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Structural Neuroimaging and the Antisocial Brain: Main Findings and Methodological Challenges

NCJ Number
Criminal Justice and Behavior Volume: 36 Issue: 11 Dated: November 2009 Pages: 1163-1176
Stephane A. De Brito; Sheilagh Hodgins; Eamon J.P. McCrory; Andrea Mechelli; Marko Wilke; Alice P. Jones; Essi Viding
Date Published
November 2009
14 pages
This article examines the use of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in brain-imaging studies.
Four checks on previously published results (De Brito et al. 2009) were conducted. First, whether the original ANCOVA violated the assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes between the covariates and the dependent variable in the study groups was investigated. Results show that the assumption had not been violated. Examined second was whether the original ANCOVA violated the assumption of a linear association between the covariates and the dependent variable. This assumption was not violated. Third, regions of interests (ROIs) were assessed to find whether the original findings would remain if the variance associated with the covariates was included in the analyses. Finally, it was assessed whether the study had failed to identify gray matter concentration (GMC) differences in the whole-brain analysis by throwing away variance associated with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and hyperactivity-inattention symptoms. Results showed that the boys with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits (CP/CU+) differed from the typically developing (TD) boys in two additional brain regions: the middle occipital gyrus and the right precuneus. Data were collected from 23 boys, 10 to 13-years old, without diagnosed neurological, medical, or psychiatric problems. Table, figures, and references