Here, an immunocyte-templated nano-topographical micromotor is engineered and their interactions with various targets across multiple scales, from ions to cells are investigated.
Manufacturing mobile artificial micromotors with structural design factors, such as morphology nanoroughness and surface chemistry, can improve the capture efficiency through enhancing contact interactions with their surrounding targets. Understanding the interplay of such parameters targeting high locomotion performance and high capture efficiency at the same time is of paramount importance, yet, has so far been overlooked. The macrophage templated nanorough micromotor demonstrates significantly increased surface interactions and significantly improved and highly efficient removal of targets from complex aqueous solutions, including in plasma and diluted blood, when compared to smooth synthetic material templated micromotors with the same size and surface chemistry. These results suggest that the surface nanoroughness of the micromotors for the locomotion performance and interactions with the multiscale targets should be considered simultaneously, for they are highly interconnected in design considerations impacting applications across scales. (Publisher abstract provided)