U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government, Department of Justice.

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2017-2018

NCJ Number
Date Published
August 2020
42 pages
Danielle Kaeble; Mariel Alper
Publication Series
Publication Type
Statistics, Report (Technical Assistance), Report (Annual/Periodic)
The federal Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) presents data on the number of adults on probation or parole in the United States for 2017-2018.
BJS collected the data in this report through the Annual Probation Survey, the Annual Parole Survey, and the Federal Justice Statistics Program. Data were collected on adult placed on supervision or removed from supervision during the reporting year and on population characteristics at year-end. These are the only national data collections that cover community corrections in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. federal system. For this report, an adult is defined as any person subject to the jurisdiction of an adult court or correctional system. Appendix tables 1-3 and 5-7 present additional 2018 data by jurisdiction. Appendix tables 9-11 and 13-15 present additional 2017 data by jurisdiction. The U.S. adult population on probation or parole declined from 4,508,900 at the end of 2017 to 4,399,000 at the end of 2018, a decrease of 2.4 percent. An estimated 1 in 58 adults in the United States were under community supervision at year end 2018. Adults on probation accounted for about 80 percent of those under community supervision, and parolees composed the remaining 20 percent. From the end of 2017 to the end of 2018, the adult probation population declined from 3,647,200 to 3,540,000. This 2.9-percent decrease drove the entire decline in the population of adults under community supervision. The adult parole population remained relatively steady, increasing 0.3 percent, from 875,000 in 2017 to 878,000 in 2018. In 2018, probation exits outpaced entries for the tenth consecutive year; parole exits in 2017, on the other hand, exceeded entries for the first time since 2009. 27 tables and 4 figures
Date Created: August 4, 2020