This article examines efforts by the U.S. Government and other countries to reform the policies and programs used by law enforcement to combat transnational organized crime (TOC). Prior the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the Federal Government identified TOC as a national security threat and addressed its efforts towards dismantling TOC’s criminal enterprises. Following the attacks of September 11th, the Government refocused its efforts towards preventing future terrorist attacks, thus changing the focus of the work on disrupting TOCs. In 2009, the U.S. Department of Justice developed a new strategy for combating TOC. These efforts included research covering four broad areas related to TOCs, and the hosting of a working group in 2010 that evaluated the success of the TOC research. The working group identified five ways that NIJ can improve its efforts to fight TOC: 1) sponsor TOC research that has value to all stakeholders; 2) evaluate programs and tools to identify and validate best practices against TOC; 3) conduct outreach efforts to promote discussion between researchers and practitioners; 4) work with NIJ’s partners at all levels of government to provide research support and other services; and 5) publish research and provide a platform for dissemination of U.S. Government information to inform and educate the general public and the private sector against TOC.