The illegal charcoal trade is a green crime that devastates the environment, but as with other crimes against nature also has not been thoroughly examined by the criminological community. The legal and illegal production and use of charcoal takes place around the world. It is a source of fuel for cooking and heating that many rural and urban people are dependent upon, but when done so unsustainably and illegally contributes to deforestation, desertification, and climate change as well as to the destruction of habitats of endangered species and other wildlife. Using the data gathered from an ongoing cooperative effort between the non-governmental organization, Wildlife Alliance, and the Royal Cambodian Forestry Administration to stop the illegal charcoal trade, and the literature about other charcoal producing nations, this article provides evidence of consequences to the environment and people if this black market trade is not diminished and introduces to the criminological agenda the green crime of the illegal charcoal trade. Abstract published by arrangement with Taylor and Francis.