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A Comparison of Exposure Therapy, Stress Inoculation Training, and Their Combination for Reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Female Assault Victims

NCJ Number
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Volume: 67 Issue: 2 Dated: 1999 Pages: 194-200
Edna B. Foa ; Constance V. Dancu; Elizabeth A. Hembree; Lisa H. Jaycox; Elizabeth A. Meadows; Gordon P. Street
Date Published
7 pages

This paper lays out the research methodology and outcomes of a study that involved female assault survivors who have PTSD, to compare the outcomes of several treatment options.


Ninety-six female assault victims with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to four treatment conditions: prolonged exposure (PE), stress inoculation training (SIT), combined treatment (PE-SIT), or wait-list control (WL). Treatment consisted of nine twice-weekly, individual sessions. Independent evaluations were conducted at pre-treatment; post-treatment; and three-, six-, and 12-month follow-ups. All three active treatments reduced severity of PTSD and depression compared with WL but did not differ significantly from each other, and these gains were maintained throughout the follow-up period. However, in the intent-to-treat sample, PE was superior to SIT and PE-SIT on post-treatment anxiety and global social adjustment at follow-up and had larger effect sizes on PTSD severity, depression, and anxiety. SIT and PE-SIT did not differ significantly from each other on any outcome measure. Publisher Abstract Provided