This research is concerned with developing and testing models of political legitimacy as a predictor of homicide on the cross-national level. Specifically, this study used Bruce Gilley's (2006) theoretically driven indicator of political legitimacy to examine its direct and moderating effects on homicide. This measure is available for 65 nations, and is composed of indicators representing a state's capacity to obey its own laws (legality), the degree to which civil and political values coincide (justification), and the level of behavioral consent of the people (consent). After controlling for a number of widely acknowledged predictors, legitimacy was found to be significantly negatively related to homicide. Abstract published by arrangement with Sage Journals.