Five themes emerged from the EWG sessions. The first theme involved the developing state of research in IOC. The EWG agreed that larger, more theoretical studies would drive more significant recommendations for both practitioners and fellow researchers. The second theme was the need for international or comparative research on IOC. Many participants agreed that studies should analyze their findings in an international context, exploring how studies conducted in one country might apply to other countries. A third theme was the importance of researcher-practitioner collaboration to produce high-quality research. The EWG often noted the benefits that practitioners derive from research and the numerous times that practitioners have relied on research to develop policy or create programs. A fourth theme was the need for interdisciplinary studies of IOC. Currently, criminologists dominate the field of IOC research. The EWG noted the need to expand contributions from other disciplines, including political science, economics, and history. The fifth theme involved concern for the IOC research community, as EWG members acknowledged the need for more focused efforts in encouraging graduates students and junior faculty to study IOC. In addition to the five themes, the EWG offers a number of recommendations. First, the IOC community should take on the larger questions of social science, such as state building and crime prevention. Second, a permanent mechanism of communication and collaboration between researchers and stakeholders should be established.