U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government, Department of Justice.

Intensive Supervision Programs and Recidivism: How Michigan Successfully Targets High-Risk Offenders

NCJ Number
Prison Journal Volume: 97 Issue: 5 Dated: 2017 Pages: 585-608
Kristen E. DeVall ; Christina Lani; David J. Hartmann; Sarah Hupp Williamson; LaQuana N. Askew
Date Published
24 pages

This paper examines the impacts on recidivism of Michigan state’s Swift and Sure Sanctions Probation Program as an alternative to incarceration, comparing results with those of probation as usual.


The United States has witnessed very large criminal justice system growth in the past 60 years. In response to calls for reform, several jurisdictions have implemented programs that provide intensive supervision for high-risk offenders, swiftly responding to violations with sanctions. In this paper, the authors present a quasi-experimental study which is the first comprehensive analysis of Michigan’s Swift and Sure Sanctions Probation Program (SSSPP), an alternative-to-incarceration program. The findings indicate that SSSPP participants had lower recidivism rates compared with individuals sentenced to probation-as-usual. The authors also provide policy implications and suggestions for future research. Publisher Abstract Provided