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A Randomized Clinical Trial of Methadone Maintenance for Prisoners: Results at 12 Months Post Release

NCJ Number
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Volume: 37 Issue: 3 Dated: 2009 Pages: 277-85
Timothy W. Kinlock ; Michael S. Gordon; Robert P. Schwartz; Terrence T. Fitzgerald; Kevin E. O'Grady
Date Published
9 pages

This study examined the impact of prison-initiated methadone maintenance at 12 months post-release.


Males with pre-incarceration heroin dependence (N = 204) were randomly assigned to (a) Counseling Only: counseling in prison, with passive referral to treatment upon release; (b) Counseling + Transfer: counseling in prison with transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release; and (c) Counseling + Methadone: counseling and methadone maintenance in prison, continued in the community upon release. The mean number of days in community-based drug abuse treatment were, respectively, Counseling Only, 23.1; Counseling + Transfer, 91.3; and Counseling + Methadone, 166.0 (p < .01); all pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (all ps < .01). Counseling + Methadone participants were also significantly less likely than participants in each of the other two groups to be opioid-positive or cocaine-positive according to urine drug testing. These results support the effectiveness of prison-initiated methadone for males in the United States. Further study is required to confirm the findings for women. (Published abstract provided)