Following a review of the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection and its implications for patient care, issues and needs are examined in the areas of health care provider education and safety; basic research; vaccine and drug development; and the role of Federal, State, and local agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control. Testing and counseling, partner notification, restrictive measures, donor blood and tissue safety, laboratory quality, and the therapist's role are discussed as they relate to prevention. Also considered are public, school-based, and special population education. Societal issues considered relate to HIV and drug abuse, the homeless, infants and children, and the workplace. The role of community and religious organizations and philanthropy also are discussed. Legal issues examined include discrimination, confidentiality, notification of sexual partners, HIV infection in correctional facilities, and criminalization of HIV transmission. Ethical issues and financing the costs of health care also are discussed. Finally the need for an international response to the epidemic is noted, and guidelines for the future are offered. Appended glossary and supplemental information.