This TIP Report is the most comprehensive worldwide report on governments' efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons. It includes countries of origin, transit, or destination for trafficking victims. It represents an updated, global look at the nature and scope of trafficking in persons and the broad range of government actions to confront and eliminate it. The 2009 TIP Report covers the period of April 2008 through March 2009. The human trafficking phenomenon affects virtually every country, including the United States. The Department of State is required by law to submit each year to the U.S. Congress a report on foreign governments' efforts to eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons. This ninth annual TIP Report seeks to increase global awareness of the human trafficking phenomenon by shedding new light on various facets of the problem and highlighting shared and individual efforts of the international community, and to encourage foreign governments to take effective action against all forms of trafficking in persons. The most recent amendments to the TVPA were enacted in December 2008.