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TWO VIEWS OF CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEFINITIONS, TRENDS, AND THE FUTURE

NCJ Number
66570
Author(s)
J P CONRAD; R A MYREN
Date Published
1979
Length
38 pages
Annotation
THE TWO PAPERS WHICH CONSTITUTE THIS PUBLICATION PRESENT THE OPPOSING VIEWS OF TWO DISCIPLINES-CRIMINAL JUSTICE EDUCATION AND CRIMINOLOGY--CONFLICTING OVER PREROGATIVES IN THE STUDY OF CRIME CONTROL AND PREVENTION.
Abstract
PUBLISHED BY THE JOINT COMMISSION ON CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE, THIS PAIR OF ARTICLES REPRESENTS A PRELIMINARY ATTEMPT TO EXPLORE THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE. THE AIM IS TO DELINEATE THE BOUNDARIES OF EACH DISCIPLINE AND DETERMINE IF THE CONFLICT IS ONE OF SUBSTANCE OR SEMANTICS, SINCE BOTH FIELDS LAY CLAIM TO THE STUDY OF CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. THE VIEWPOINT OF CRIMINOLOGY, THE OLDER OF THE TWO, CONTENDS THAT THE SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE PHENOMENA OF CRIME WAS THE PREROGATIVE OF CRIMINOLOGISTS UNTIL THE EXPLOSION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE STUDIES SET OFF BY THE LAW ENFORCEMENT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM OCCURRED. IN THE PAST DECADE, OVER 1,243 SCHOOLS HAVE BEGUN TO OFFER COURSES FOR THE PREPARATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE CAREERS, SUCH AS PRISON GUARDS, COUNSELORS, AND PAROLE AND PROBATION OFFICERS. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CRIMINOLOGY TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE EDUCATION IS LIKENED BY THE CRIMINOLOGY VIEWPOINT TO THAT OF BIOLOGY TO MEDICINE, AND IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THIS DISTINCTION BETWEEN SCIENTISTS AND PRACTITIONERS REMAIN CLEAR IN THE REALM OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION AND ITS STANDARDS. BOTH JUSTICIANS AND CRIMINOLOGISTS COULD SHARE BEGINNERS' INSTRUCTION IN THE PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL LAW, BUT THEY SHOULD FOLLOW DIVERGENT PATHS ONCE CRIMINAL JUSTICE STUDENTS BEGIN TO CONCENTRATE ON SPECIALIZED OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS OF ACCREDITATION REMAIN TO BE SOLVED FOR THE NUMEROUS CRIMINAL JUSTICE EDUCATION PROGRAMS PRESENTLY IN OPERATION. THE OPPOSING VIEWPOINT INCLUDES CRIMINOLOGY AS A COMPONENT OF THE FAR BROADER FIELDS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE STUDIES, DEFINED AS INTEGRATED INTERDISCIPLINARY SEQUENCES OF SCHOLARLY TEACHING AND RESEARCH IN THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES FOCUSED ON THE SOCIAL PROBLEM OF CRIME. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD MUST INTEGRATE THE REMAINING VOCATIONALLY-ORIENTED POLICE AND CORRECTIONS SCIENCE PRORAMS AND THE NARROW CRIMINOLOGY CURRICULA OF CONSERVATIVE SOCIOLOGY DEPARTMENTS WITHIN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SCIENCES. FOOTNOTES ARE INCLUDED FOR BOTH ARTICLES. (MRK)