Existent interventions that target brain networks associated with PTSD and cognitive impairment are highlighted. Furthermore, the benefits of combining neuroimaging and neuropsychology research in treatment outcomes are discussed. To conduct this review, a literature search was done utilizing the words MRI, structural, functional, neuropsychological testing, children, maltreatment, treatment, and PTSD. This was supplemented with a direct search of developmental trauma experts. Results from the neuroimaging studies found differences in the total cerebral volume, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, superior temporal gyrus, corpus callosum, and other regions in maltreatment-related childhood PTSD. Neuropsychological findings demonstrate deficits in memory, attention, learning, and executive function that correspond to these brain regions. Existent and novel psychotherapeutic interventions address these deficits. These interventions may be directed at key networks associated with cognitive processing. Future directions include the implementation of treatment outcome research integrating psychotherapy with putative biological and psychological markers. Abstract published by arrangement with Springer.