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Accountability and Police Use of Force: Interactive Effects Between Minority Representation and Civilian Review Boards

NCJ Number
Date Published

This study assessed a contingency model of representative bureaucracy, suggesting the effect of minority representation, if any, on police use of force is likely to be stronger with external oversight of police.


The study used OLS regression to examine main and interactive effects of minority representation and the presence of civilian review boards on police use of force in the United States. It concluded that representation on the police force is negatively associated with police use of force; however, there is a stronger effect of minority representation on use of force when the department also has a civilian review board, supporting contingency effects. (publisher abstract modified)

Date Published: January 1, 2021