This paper describes a research study aimed at evaluating the effects of multiple school-related, resilience-promotive factors against exposure to violence at school among sixth-grade students.
The authors report on their examination of the effect of multiple school-related, resilience-promotive factors against exposure to violence (ETV) at school among an urban sample of sixth-grade students, with a total sample size of 441, 57 percent of which were female, and 90 percent identified as students of color. Using multilevel mixed-effects linear models, the authors analyzed two waves of data, one at baseline and a four-month follow-up. Results indicated that ETV was associated with subsequent higher levels of victimization, cyberbullying victimization, and aggressive behavior, after controlling for demographics and outcome scores at baseline. A cumulative school promotive factor (CSPF) consisting of school change efficacy, school connectedness, and perceived trust at school had a compensatory effect (direct, opposite main effect) against the effects of ETV on aggressive behaviors and victimization. Finally, the CSPF had a protective (moderating) effect on aggressive behavior, victimization, and cyberbullying victimization. Publisher Abstract Provided
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