The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Act) requires a background check on an applicant for a firearm purchase from a dealer who is a Federal Firearms Licensee (FFL). During the permanent Brady period, from 1999 through 2008, background checks were conducted on over 84 million applicants for firearm transfers or permits. During this period, nearly 1.5 million applications for firearm transfers or permits were denied by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or by State and local agencies, a denial rate of 1.7%. This report summarizes the number of applications for firearm transfers and permits, denials that resulted from background checks, reasons for denials, rates of denials, appeals of denials, and arrests of denied persons during the permanent Brady period. Statistics are presented for FBI, State, and local levels. The report also provides a summary of significant changes in Federal and State laws and regulations related to firearm sales. Statistical highlights are presented in the body of the report and complete details are included in provided tables. This project was supported by Grant No. 2009-BJ-CX-K006 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Points of view in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the US Department of Justice.