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CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN

NCJ Number
10719
Author(s)
C R JEFFERY
Date Published
1971
Length
290 pages
Annotation
ANALYSIS OF CRIME CONTROL TO DATE, CALLING FOR A NEW SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY BASED UPON SCIENTIFIC PROCEDURES, BEHAVIORISM, AND ENVIRONMENTALISM.
Abstract
DETERRENCE AND REHABILITATIVE APPROACHES TO CRIME CONTROL HAVE FAILED. IN THE FORMER CASE ENFORCEMENT OF THE LAWS WAS UNCERTAIN AND INCONSISTENT, AND, IN THE LATTER CASE, ONLY THE INDIVIDUAL OFFENDER WAS TREATED, AND THAT WAS DONE ONLY AFTER THE CRIME OCCURRED. CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR IS A PRODUCT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, NOT ONE OF POVERTY, URBAN LIVING, UNDEREDUCATION, BROKEN HOMES, OR THE PSYCHOPATHIC NATURE OF THE INDIVIDUAL. ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME CONTROL ADHERES TO THE CLASSICAL PRINCIPLES OF PREVENTION OF CRIME BEFORE IT OCCURS AND CERTAINTY OF CONSEQUENCES FOR BEHAVIOR, BUT SHIFTS EMPHASES FROM PUNISHMENT AND THE INDIVIDUAL OFFENDER TO REINFORCEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT. THE PRIME FORM OF CONTROL IS REINFORCEMENT OF LAWFUL BEHAVIOR AND REMOVAL OF REINFORCEMENT FOR ILLEGAL BEHAVIOR. URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN, SOCIAL PLANNING, SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DECISION THEORY, GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES, AND TRAINING IN ENVIRONMENTAL CRIMINOLOGY ARE DISCUSSED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS CONCEPT THAT THE ENVIRONMENT, NOT THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM, IS WHAT MUST BE REFORMED.