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Hate Symbols and Hand Gestures on Polish Stadiums

NCJ Number
Internal Security Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Dated: July-Dcember 2010 Pages: 59-72
Justyna Jurczak
Date Published
December 2010
14 pages
This article examines the problem of football hooliganism.
To give a general view on the importance of the problem of football hooliganism, it is essential to analyze all the aspects of it, such as criminological, psychological, sociological, as well as preventive one. Unfortunately nowadays one of the most noticeable problems relating to the safety and security of the football game are incidents of racist nature and other extreme behavior, as well as specific activity of many different hate groups. That is why the main purpose of this article is to analyze the problem of using forbidden symbols, logos and gestures on polish stadiums The main part of this article contains a large amount of information, both graphic and written, about the most popular symbols and hand signs which are used by Neo-Nazist, racist, skinheads and other hate groups in Poland. The results of the research are based on author's observation, which consist of 60 photos taken since 2001 to 2009 on polish stadiums by 'NEVER AGAIN' Association. It is very important for football community and law enforcement agencies to recognize these symbols and what they mean. Through knowledge of hate symbols, police officers may be able to identify hate group members, also to identify individuals who are involved in racist and anti-Semitic incidents. (Published Abstract)