The main institutions and considerations affecting the administration of justice under law are analyzed and evaluated. An introductory section examines the nature of law, common law, statutory law, and additional basic definitions and concepts. A discussion on court staffing covers judicial selection, tenure, qualifications, and political influences on judicial selection. Specific topics examined concerning courts, courtrooms, and juries include trial and appellate courts, courtroom procedure, the selection and impaneling of juries, and civil and criminal trial procedures. The jurisdictions of the courts within the American dual court system are described and contrasted with the courts of England, France, and Wales, as well as the Soviet Union. Jurisdiction, workload, and procedures of the U.s. Supreme Court are also discussed, along with outside influences on court personnel. A discussion on judicial review is presented in terms of American political history and thought, and limitations on judicial power and effectiveness are explored. Sixteen basic maxims of judicial self-restraint are also presented and explained. A general subject index, a name index, a court case index, and appendixes identifying past and present Supreme Court justices and their years of service are included. Four bibliographies list about 4,500 references pertaining to U.S. constitutional law, U.S. Supreme Court justices, comparative constitutional and administrative law, and constitutional rights and civil liberties.