J A Winterdyk
These 11 papers each describe one country's juvenile justice system in terms of the social and legal definition of juvenile delinquency, the nature and extent of juvenile delinquency, the philosophy and model used for juvenile justice, and current legal and social issues related to juvenile offenders.
The countries include Australia, Canada, England and Wales, Federal Republic of Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Russia, and the United States. An introduction provides an overview of issues involved in comparative analysis. It also notes that the Ninth United Nations National Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders reported that youth crime is increasing around the world, especially in countries in transition. That congress also reported that the average age of onset of juvenile delinquency was declining, and that half the world population will be under age 15 by the year 2000. The discussion also notes that each country's definition of what legally constitutes a juvenile of young offender reflects its cultural, historical, political, and social differences that can make comparisons of countries challenging. In addition, the following six different models can describe the handling of juveniles. The models are not mutually exclusive, the distinctions between certain countries are not as dissimilar as the names might imply, and countries such as Australia and Canada have different models in different jurisdictions. Japan uses the participatory model. Australia and the Netherlands use the welfare model. Hong Kong and England and Wales use the corporation model. Canada uses the modified justice model. Italy, the Netherlands, and Russia use the justice model. The United States and Hungary use the crime control model. Tables, figures, and chapter reference lists
Canadian Scholars Press
180 Bloor St. West, Suite 1202, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2V6 Canada, Canada