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Ku Klux Klan: Evolution Towards Revolution

NCJ Number
Journal of Gang Research Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Dated: Spring 2005 Pages: 1-16
Gregg W. Etter, Sr. Ed.D.; David H. McElreath Ph.D.; Chester L. Quarles Ph.D.
Date Published
16 pages
This paper analyzes the history, evolution, current operations, and future possibilities of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) in the United States.
The KKK is the oldest and most infamous of American hate groups and has a long history of violence in this country. The evolution of the KKK can be divided into three distinct phases: the Resistance Movement (1865-1882), the Reactionary Movement (1915-1944), and the Revolutionary Movement (1946-present). The authors analyze each phase in turn and claim that while most of the crimes committed by members of the KKK were political in nature, there is evidence that this is changing. The KKK has a history of adapting to changing conditions and to the prejudices of current members. Its status as a hate group during the past 10 years has been emboldened by its ability to team with other White supremacist groups, evidenced by their cross patching with an outlaw motorcycle gang. KKK has also become a prison security threat group and remains one of the most dangerous hate groups in the United States with a total of 5,500 members across the country. Bibliography


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