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Probation as a Profession (From Probation Round the World: A Comparative Study, P 133-160, 1995, Koichi Hamai et al, eds. -- See NCJ-158993)

NCJ Number
K Hamai; R Ville
Date Published
28 pages
This chapter addresses the extent to which the probation system in each of 11 countries is "professionalized" and assesses where probation officers in each system are located in the employment market.
The 11 countries included in the study are Australia (New South Wales, South Australia, and Western Australia), Canada, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Sweden, England and Wales, and Scotland. One table shows whether each system has a professional association, a code of ethics, and a union. The table shows that a professional association is available to probation officers in most of the probation systems. In seven systems, this association is either specifically for probation officers or else for social workers and probation officers. Only four probation systems have formal codes of ethics specifically for probation work. Another table indicates the qualifications for probation officers in each country. Almost all systems specify a minimum age, and half have a maximum. Seven systems require a professional or technical qualification, and six require a degree. Another table summarizes the types of training for probation officers available in each country and shows whether this is compulsory. All systems except Hungary's provide some type of training. In most countries, initial training for newly recruited probation officers is mandatory. A country-by-country detailed account describes the arrangements for training in each system. Information is also provided on the salaries of probation officers and career advancement. 4 tables and 3 figures