Every chapter from the first edition has been updated to reflect the most recent available documents and information on the structure of the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and the more than 20 other U.S. intelligence-gathering organizations. The new edition provides single chapters for imagery and signals intelligence, HUMINT and open sources/technical surveillance and mail opening/material exploitation, and counterintelligence and covert action. The chapter on covert action focuses on the Reagan years. Two new chapters are also provided: one on environmental intelligence -- weather and medical intelligence, mapping, charting, and geodesy -- and one on governmental oversight institutions outside the intelligence community. The book concludes with a discussion of the issues confronting the intelligence community and suggestions for changes in its structure and operations. Chapter notes, subject index.