There is significant evidence that the majority of officer-involved shootings occur within 10 feet. Unfortunately, many police firearms training programs have advocated training techniques based more on a competition format than one that simulates the dynamic confrontation scenarios in the real world of police encounters. Valhalla's ECQ aims to remedy this training gap. Valhalla's facilities include a square range and two live-fire shoot houses ("mazes"). The mazes include simulated offices, homes, bars, parks, vehicles, hallways, stairwells, and a variety of other mock-ups. Lighting can be modified and background noises can be added. Under the ECQ curriculum, the student's abilities are first checked out on the square range. The remainder of the 2-day course focuses on "up-close" scenarios. Combat Focus Shooting involves focusing on the area the shooter wishes to hit and bringing the pistol up in alignment with the eyes. Students fire at 3-D plastic targets in contact with them to the front and rear while lying on their backs shooting up at the target and while on top of the target shooting down. Students are taught that shooting at this close distance requires placing the pistol at certain locations to enable safe shooting and proper functioning. Students learn how to clear a firearm malfunction with one hand while fending off a suspect with the other hand/arm. The second day of the course is spent working in the "mazes" with role players and armed with converted pistols that use training ammunition. Students learn to deal with a variety of dynamic scenarios, most of which include some type of ambush at close range.