The risk of being killed is greatest within the first 24 hours of birth. Despite this, less is known about neonaticide compared with other homicides, particularly those occurring in the Australian context. A highly publicized case of neonaticide attracting an 18-year sentence recently provoked debate about the introduction of prevention strategies, such as 'Safe Havens' and baby hatches in Australia. This paper reviews the limited international literature on risk factors associated with neonaticide and provides an insight into recent developments on the introduction of Safe Haven laws in the United States. Little is known about the risk factors associated with neonaticide in Australia. Given recent interest in developing policies to prevent or reduce neonaticide in Australia, there is a pressing need for more research in this area. Abstract published by arrangement with John Wiley & Sons.